Bloom’s Taxonomy
Question Classification Scheme
Behavioral Complexity 
Expected student behavior 
Instructional Processes 
Key words 
Remembering

The student is able to remember or recall information and recognize facts, terminology, and rules.  RepetitionMemorization  DefineDescribe
Identify 
Understanding

The student is able to change the form of a communication by translating and rephrasing what has been read or spoken.  ExplanationIllustration  SummarizeParaphrase
Rephrase 
Application

The student is able to apply the information learned to a context different from the one in which it was learned.  PracticeTransfer  ApplyUse
Employ 
Analysis

The student is able to break a problem down into its component parts and to draw relationships among the parts.  InductionDeduction  RelateDistinguish
Differentiate 
Creating

The student is able to combine parts to form a unique or novel solution to a problem.  DivergenceGeneralization  FormulateCompose
Produce 
Evaluation

The student is able to make decisions about the value or worth of methods, ideas, people, or products according to expressed criteria.  DiscriminationInference  AppraiseDecide
Justify 
Source: from “Effective Teaching Methods,” by Borich
A probe is a question that immediately follows a student’s response. (p.310)
(e.g. “Can you try to explain that in another way?”) 2. Soliciting probes: ask for new information
(e.g. “Now that you have taken 5 squared, how can you extend the same idea to find 5 cubed?”) 3. Redirecting probes

Examples of talk in action in Mathematics
“Talk Moves “Five Productive Talk Moves – Move 1: Revoicing (“So you’re saying that it’s an odd number?”)
(Revoicing provides more “thinking space”) – Move 2: Repeating: asking students to restate someone else’s reasoning (“Can you repeat what he just said in your own words?”)
– Move 3: Reasoning: asking students to apply their own reasoning to someone else’s responding (“Do you agree or disagree and why?”) – Move 4: Adding on: prompting students for further participation (“Wound someone like to add something more to this?”) – Move 5: Waiting: using wait time (“Take your time… we’ll wait…”) 
Source from “Classroom Discussion: Using math talk to help students learn, by Suzanne H. Chapin, Catherine O’Connor, & Nancy Canavan Anderson”
References
Borich, G. D. (2010). Effective Teaching Methods (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson Prentice Hall.
Chapin, S.H., O’Connor C., & Anerson, N. C. (2009). Classroom Discussions: using math talk to help students learn. CA: Math Solutions.